1.（安徽高考）It is lucky we booked a room, or we ______nowhere to stay now.
A. had B. had had C. would have D. would have had
2.（重庆高考）Without his wartime experiences, Hemingway____ his famous novel A Farewell to Arms.
A. Didn’t write B. hadn’t written
C. wouldn’t write D. wouldn’t have written
3.（陕西高考）Ellen is a fantastic dancer. I wish I as well as her.
A. dance B. will dance C. had danced D. danced
4.（北京高考） If I _____it with my own eyes , I wouldn’t have believed it.
A .didn’t see B. weren’t seeing C. Wouldn’t see D. hadn’t seen
5.（天津高考）I wish I ______ at my sister’s wedding last Tuesday, but I was on a business trip in New York then.
A. will be B. would be C. have been D. had been
6. If we _______ adequate preparations, the conference wouldn’t have been so successful.
A. haven’t madeB. wouldn’t make
C. didn’t make D. hadn’t made
7. We lost our way in that small village, otherwise we________more places of interest yesterday.
A. visitedB. had visitedC. would visit D. would have visited
1. C。本题考查的是虚拟语气的用法，or是虚拟语气的信号词翻译为否则，后边的句子应该使用虚拟语气，又因为句尾有now，应该是用Would +原型。
3. D。本题考查虚拟语气，I wish后面使用虚拟语气，和现在相反使用一般过去时。
4. D。句意：如果不是我亲眼看到，我不会相信。本题考查虚拟语气，根据后半句“wouldn’t have believed ”可以判断是对过去的虚拟。所以从句是“if+主语+ had done”的形式。
6. D。在虚拟条件句中，表示与过去事实相反的情况，从句用过去完成时，主句用would have done的形式。句意：如果我们没有做好充分的准备，会议就不会这样成功。
7. D。本题关键是从时间状语yesterday知道是对过去的虚拟，前半句是个过去的客观事实“我们在那个小山村迷路”，otherwise否则，后半句是用对过去的虚拟would have done，答案为D项。对虚拟语气的做法主要是看时间状语或是看里面的关键词是对什么时间的虚拟，这就很容易了。
If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, I will go for a picnic
Oil floats if you pour it on water.
If everyone knew first aid, many lives would be saved. (与现在事实相反)
If the earthquake had happened in the desert, there would have been fewer deaths. (与过去事实相反)
If I were to have an eight-day holiday, I would go fishing. (与将来事实相反)
If I were you, I would study much harder.
If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met her.
If I should go there tomorrow, I would do it in my way.
1. 当从句的主语为第三人称单数时，谓语动词若是系动词be时，可用was代替were。但在倒装虚拟结构及if I were you, as it were中，只能用were。
If I were you, I would try my best to grasp the chance.
If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. （条件为过去，结果为现在）
If they had informed us, we would not come here now.
If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. （条件为现在，结果为过去）
If he knew her, he would have greeted her.
If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better. （条件为过去，结果为将来）
3. 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were, should, had时，if可省略，而将were, should, had等词置于句首。如：
Should he agree to go there, we would send him there.
Were she here, she would agree with us.
Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here.
4. 有时，句子没有直接给出假设情况的条件，而隐含在某些介词短语中，如without, but for, otherwise, or, but, given, supposing等，或上下文里，叫做含蓄虚拟结构。
I would have come to see you, but I was too busy.
But for his help, we would be working now.
Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress.
I was busy yesterday, otherwise/or (=If I hadn’t been busy) I would have attended Mr. Wang’s lecture.
陈述事实 + otherwise + 虚拟语气
虚拟语气 + but +陈述事实
1. 在for fear that, in case引导的目的状语从句中，若用虚拟语气时，从句谓语为：should /could/ might等 + 动词原形；lest引导的目的状语从句，谓语动词用虚拟语气，为“should + 动词原形”或省略should。
She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in.
He started out earlier lest he should be late.
Bring some money in case you should use it.
在so that, in order that所引导的目的状语从句中，从句中的谓语为：can / may / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形。
He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer.
He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word.
2. 让步状语从句中的虚拟语气：在even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中，可用虚拟语气，主句、从句的结构与if所引导的条件从句结构相同。如：
Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do.
Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here.
3. 方式状语从句中的虚拟语气：as if, as though引导的方式状语从句常用虚拟语气。
The teacher treats the pupil as if he were her own child. （这位学生并不是她的亲生孩子）
I felt as though we had known each other for years. （其实并没有认识多年）
表示与将来事实不相符，用would/might/could/should + 动词原形
It looks as if it might rain. （不大可能下雨）
在表达惊异、惋惜、遗憾、理应如此等意义的主语从句中常使用虚拟语气，其虚拟语气的结构为： should + 动词原形，主句中的谓语动词形式不限。
1. It be + adj. + that … (surprising / important / strange /necessary / natural …)
2. It be + n. + that … (a pity / a shame / no wonder…)
3. It be + -ed + that … (suggested / requested / desired / proposed …)
1. advise, ask, demand, desire, decide, insist(坚决要求) , order, propose, request, suggest(建议) 表示请求、要求、命令或建议等意义的动词所接的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气，其虚拟语气的结构为：(should) + 原形动词。
与现在事实相反: wish + (that) +did (were)
I wish I were as healthy as you.
I wish that I had a plane.
与过去事实相反: wish + (that) +had done
I wish I had been to the concert last night.
I wish you had written to him.
与将来事实相反: wish + would/could/might + do
I wish he would forgive me.
3. would rather/ had rather/ would sooner等之后的宾语从句常表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望，故使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为：
与过去事实相反：had + 过去分词；
与现在事实相反：过去时(be 用were )
与将来事实相反：过去时(be 用were )
I’d rather you had seen the film yesterday.
I’d rather you were here now.
We’d rather you went here tomorrow.
表示请求、要求、命令、建议等名词advice, desire, decision, idea, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, wish充当句子的主语而后面接表语从句或它们后面接同位语时，表语从句及同位语从句都须用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为：(should) + 动词原形。
四“建议”：advise, suggest, propose, recommend
六“要求”：demand, require, request, desire, urge, ask
We followed his advice that we should ask our teacher for help.
His suggestion is that we should do our work more carefully.
表示：“早该做某事了”时，定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气，其虚拟语气的结构为：It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + 动词原形。
It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school.
It is high time you should go to work.
What if … 要是……怎么办？
What if I should fail? (= What should I do if I should fail?)
If only … 要是……就好了。
If only I were 20 years younger. (= It would be better if I were 20 years younger.)
If you would … 如果你愿意……
If you would open your book. (= Please open your book.)
I should be happy to go with you. (=I should be happy if I could go with you.)
To have studied harder, you would have passed the examination. (=if you have studied harder, you…)
Born in better times, he would have been a scholar. (=If he had been born in better times, he …)
Failing this time, what would you do？ (=If you failed this time, what…)
Without air, no one could live. (=If there were no air, no one could live.)
But for his help, he would have failed. (=If it hadn’t been for his help, he would have failed.)
A true friend would not have betrayed me. (=If he had been a true friend, he would…)
A few hours earlier, and you would have seen the famous writer. (If you had come a few hours earlier, you…)
5. 将条件隐含在某些连词(如or, or else, otherwise等)中：
I didn’t know that he was a cheat, or else I wouldn’t have believed him. (or else=if I had known he was a cheat))
I’m really very busy, otherwise I would certainly go there with you. (otherwise=if I were not so busy))
Anyone who had seen that painting might have taken it for a photo. (=If anyone had seen that painting…)
Don’t bother to read all these papers. It would take too long. (=…If you read all these papers, it would take too long)
If I had told you earlier, you would not have to walk here now.
英语中有些固定句式通常要与虚拟语气连用，如but for, would rather, it is time that…, I wish…, if only等。他们各种所带虚拟语气的形式不一样，例如It’s time…that的从句谓语通常用过去时；would rather后接从句时，从句通常用过去式表示现在或将来，用过去完成时表示过去等等，这时需要事先牢记各种句型的固定格式。
1. I ______________ (come) too if I had time to spare.
2. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she ________________ (come), she would have met my brother.
3. If the hurricane had happened during the daytime, there______________________ (be) more deaths.
4. If it ___________________________ (rain) tomorrow, we ________________ (not go out).
5.______ (be) I in good health, I __________ (go) with you tomorrow.
6. He is not a pilot, but he wishes he______ (be).
7. I wish I ___________ (meet) him yesterday.
8. I wish it __________ (be) fine tomorrow.
9. He ordered the work _________________ (start) at once.
10. I’d rather you _________ (stay) at home all day today.
11. It is strange that he _____________ (make) such a mistake. That’s unexpected.
12. It was required that each student ________ (bring) enough food on the trip.
13. My demand is that you _______________ (get up) at six.
14. He speaks as if he ________ (be) an Englishman.
15. They talked as if they _____________ (be) good friends for years.
16. Presently he made the suggestion that they ________________ (carry on) their conversation in French.
17. Even if he _______ (be) here, he couldn’t solve the problem.
18. Without air, there __________ (be) no living things.
19. But for your help, I __________________ (not, do) it.
20. If only I ____________ (take) his advice, but I didn’t.
21. I was very busy yesterday, otherwise I _________________ (come) to the meeting.
22. Look at the clock! It’s (high) time we _______________ (go) home.
23. If she hadn’t trained so hard, she _________ (not, be) able to run so fast today.
24. They ____________ (want) to help but couldn’t get here in time.
25. I _______________ (be going to) travel by train but then we decided to go by air.
1. He did not regret saying what he did but felt that he _________ it differently.
A. could express B. would express
C. could have expressed D. must have expressed
2. This printer is of good quality. If it _______ break down within the first year, we would repair it at our expense.
A. would B. should C. could D. might
3. The doctor recommended that you ______ swim after eating a large meal.
A. wouldn’t B. couldn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t
4. But for the help of my English teacher, I _________ the first prize in the English Writing Competition.
A. would not win B. would not have won
C. would win D. would have won
5. __________ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off.
A. Would you be B. Should you be
C. Could you be D. Might you be
Nagori had a decent life. But people __1___ him. It was because he had borne a stain(污点)in his life—Varyu, his son, a complete alcoholic. He would seldom work but __2___ most of the time. Nagori ___3__ every night. He had done everything to change his son. But Varyu broke away from everything. ___4__ meant very little to him；all he wanted to do was enjoy his ___5__. Sheetal, Nagori’s daughter __6___ for her life when her brother entered the house. Varyu would pull her hair as he would __7___ her to get cigarettes, regardless of the time.
One day, looking at Nagori’s tensed __8___, the temple sage(智者)asked him what __9___ him. Nagori sobbed, “What have I done to deserve a son like Varyu?” The sage stretched out his hands and __10___ Nagori, “Don’t let this break you. Send your son to me tomorrow. ”
Surprisingly, Varyu turned up. The sage took him to the ___11__. “Pull out that branch,”said the sage and Varyu just broke it and handed it to him. “Pull out that plant from the ground, ’’said the sage. After some __12___ pulling, the plant was in his hands. Then the sage asked Varyu to put out a small tree. Varyu __13___, thinking it would be a piece of cake. But to his surprise, the __14___ tree did not come out.
Varyu did with all his ___15__, but in vain. Finally he gave up. The sage smiled and said, “Bad habits are just like that tree. Once they are __16___ rooted, it is almost __17___ to get out of them. In the beginning you rule your body, but when bad habits ___18__, they rule your body. So if you want to control your body, the __19___ is now. ”
___20__ by the wise words, Varyu returned home and became a reformed alcoholic(改过自新的酗酒者).
1. A. encouraged B. refused C. pitied D. hated
2. A. sleep B. drink C. travel D. complain
3. A. wept B. analyzed C. struggled D. argued
4. A. EducationB. Friendship C. Values D. Exercises
5. A. freedom B. right C. life D. holiday
6. A. bogged B. feared C. prepared D. searched
7. A. help B. request C. persuade D. force
8. A. face B. muscle C. hands D. legs
9. A. satisfied B. worried C. threatened D. prevented
10. A. calmed B. scolded C. shook D. supported
11. A. street B. temple C. factoryD. forest
12. A. long B. dead C. forceful D. steady
13. A. disagreed B. admitted C. hesitated D. smiled
14. A. tall B. stubborn C. beautiful D. dry
15. A. strength B. knowledge C. courage D. patience
16. A. fortunately B. secretly C. accidentally D. deeply
17. A. dangerous B. impossible C. foolish D. illegal
18. A. take over B. make up C. pass by D. stay up
19. A. direction B. signal C. time D. result
20. A. Astonished B. Praised C. Confused D. Touched
The NASAESA Hubble Space Telescope has produced the most detailed image so far of Messier 9, a ball star cluster(群)located close to the center of the galaxy. This ball of stars is too faint to see with the naked eye, yet Hubble can see over 250, 000 individual stars shining in it.
Messier 9, pictured here, is a roughly group of stars that lies around 25, 000 light years from Earth, near the centre of the Milky Way, so close that the gravity from the centre pulls it slightly out of shape.
Ball clusters are thought to include some of the oldest stars in our galaxy. As well as being far older than the sun—round twice its age—the stars of Messier 9 also have a different composition, and are enriched with far fewer heavier elements than the sun. In particular, the elements crucial to life on Earth, like oxygen and carbon, are very scarce in Messier 9.
Messier 9, as its name suggests, was discovered by the great French astronomer Charles Messier in 1764. Even through the most advanced telescopes of the day, none of the stars in the cluster could be seen individually. Messier, seeing only a faint point, therefore classified the object as a nebula—or “cloud” in Latin. It was only later in the 18th century that astronomers, most notably William Herschel, began to spot stars within the cluster.
Hubble’s image is able to recognize individual stars, right into the crowded centre of the cluster. Over 250, 000 of them are focused on the detector of Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys, in an image which covers an area no bigger than the size of the head of a pin held at arm’s length.
As well as showing the individual stars, Hubble’s image clearly shows the different colors of the stars. A star’s color is directly related to its temperature—perhaps, the redder it is, the cooler it is；and the bluer it is, the hotter.
The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.
1. Why did French astronomer Charles Messier classify the object as a nebula—or “cloud” in Latin?
A. Because he thought its composition was mainly gas.
B. Because he couldn’t see the individual stars.
C. Because there were too many stars in the cluster.
D. Because it was out of shape due to the gravity.
2. What does the“Milky Way”(Para. 2)refer to?
A. The galaxy. B. The Sun. C. Messier 9. D. The universe.
3. From the text we can know that ________.
A. Messier 9 lies about 250, 000 light years from Earth
B. there is no oxygen and carbon on Messier 9
C. Hubble’s image shows the individual stars of Messier 9
D. the first image of Messier 9 was formed by William Herschel
4. Which one is the best title of the text?
A. Hubble Sees Shining Stars of Messier 9
B. The Advanced Hubble Space Telescope
C. A Remote“Ball”Discovered in Space
D. Messier 9’s Color Has Been Recognized
5. According to the text, how can we judge a star’s temperature?
A. By its color. B. By its distance C. By its size. D. By its history.
1. How I wish I could be three years younger! (重庆高考)
2. If only I would return to three years ago. ( 重庆高考)
3. Things would have played out so differently if I had simply said that. ( 新课标高考)
4. If men insisted on being free from the burden of self-dependence and responsibility for the common good, they would cease to be free.” (江苏高考)
5. What if we invited them to come here for a party instead? (北京苏高考)
6. If parents of earlier generations had wanted to be in touch with their college-age children frequently, would this have been possible? (北京高考)
7. How would you like it if you were watching your favorite TV program and someone came into the room and just shut it off without asking you? (浙江高考)
8. We’ve lit up the night as if it were an unoccupied country, when nothing could be further from the truth. (浙江高考)
9. What if the family had simply left the cat behind? ( 重庆高考)
10. If you could give your younger self one piece of advice，what would you say? ( 重庆高考)
11. If only I could go back and reset my goals. (重庆高考)
12. Were I three years younger than I am now, I would strongly recommend that I set more practical and specific goals. (重庆高考)
If you could give your younger self one piece of advice，what would you say?
1. should come 2. had come 3. would have been
4. rained/should rain/were to rain；should not go out
5. Were；would go 6. were 7. had met
8. would be 9. (should) be started 10. stayed
11. (should) make 12. bring 13. (should) get up
14. were 15. had been 16. (should) carry on
17. were 18. would be 19. couldn’t have done
20. had taken 21. would have come 22. went/should go
23. wouldn’t be 24. had wanted 25. was going to
1. C。...he could have expressed it differently. 他要是用另一种方式来说该多好啊。
2. B。前句表示打印机质量好，按道理起初的一年内不可能毁坏，所以下句提出了一种将来的可能性不大的假设，由此判断为与将来事实相反的假设，用虚拟，从句形式be to do, 动词过去时；should 动词原形。故选B。
4. B。此处虚拟语气表示与过去事实相反，句子谓语动词用“would/should/could/might + have done”结构，故选B。
5. B。本题考查了虚拟语气的倒装。如果虚拟语气的条件从句谓语动词中含有were, had, should，有时可将if省去，而将条件从句的主语置于were, had, should之后。
1. C。将a decent life和But联系起来可知，尽管Nagori一生都很正派，但是人们还是感到可惜，因为他有一个嗜酒如命的儿子。
2. B。联系前文a complete alcoholic可知，他整天游手好闲，只知道酗酒。
3. A。从He had done everything to change his son. But Varyu broke away from everything可知，Nagori对自己的儿子已经绝望。每天晚上，Nagori都要为此而流泪、哭泣。
4. C。联系meant very little to him可知。他已经没有什么价值观了。价值观对于他来说毫无意义，他只想享受生活。
6. B。联系下文Varyu would pull her hair...可知，每次只要她哥哥一进门就扯她的头发，向她逼要香烟，所以她非常害怕。
7. D。从空前的pull her hair可知，他哥哥采用暴力逼迫她给自己拿香烟。
12.C。联系前文Pull out that plant from the ground可知，智者要他连根拔起，因此需要稍微用力一拔。
13. D。联系空后的thinking it would be a piece of cake可知，听到智者让他拔一棵小树，他轻蔑地笑了，认为那仍然是小菜一碟。
14. B。联系空前的to his surprise可知，事情并不是他想的那么简单。小树纹丝不动，仍然在土中。
15. A。从but in vain可知，在第一次不成功后，Varyu用尽了全身的力气，结果还是拔不出来。
16. D。从前文Bad habits fire just like that tree我们可以知道，坏习惯就像那棵树，一旦它们深深地扎根，你就很难把它们“拔掉”了。
17. B。联系前面把习惯比喻成树，以及空后的to get out of them我们可以得出答案。
18. A。从they rule your body可知，但是，当坏习惯“掌权之后”，它们将控制你。
1. B。这位发现它的法国宇航员把它归类为“云”是因为他只看到了一个微弱的点，即无法看到个体的恒星。根据第四段“Messier, seeing only a faint point, therefore...”可知答案。
2. A。根据第一段“a ball star cluster(群)located close to the center of the galaxy. ”可知，这里指的是“银河”。
3. C。根据第一段最后一句以及倒数第三段的描述可知. Hubble望远镜观测到了组成Messier9的个体恒星。
4. A。概括全文可知，本文主要指出，Hubble望远镜观测到组成Messier 9的250，000颗恒星。
5. A。根据倒数第二段“A star's color is directly related to its temperature...”可知，恒星的颜色与温度直接相关联，因此判断恒星的温度应该依据它的颜色。
I suggest/ advise that…I should….
I strongly recommend that….
It’s strongly recommended that….
My suggestion/ advice to the younger self is that….
If I were three years younger, I would….
Were I three years younger, I would….
二、原因句式：建议陈述两个原因，用并列结构not only, but…as well连接
1. The reason why… is that…
2. Why I say so is that…
3. It is not only because… but … as well.
4. …for the simple reason that… not only… , but… as well.
5. The reasons are as follows.
Were I three years younger than I am now, I would strongly recommend that I set more practical and specific goals. As an old saying goes, living without a clear and achievable aim is like sailing without a compass. Compared with many abstract objectives, practical ones can bring us more courage and confidence whenever we make one step forward. If only I could go back and reset my goals.